sábado, abril 1, 2023

Can Giorgia Meloni Govern Italy?


Italy’s first far-right chief since World Battle II—and the primary lady ever to steer the nation—is small, blond, fierce, street-smart, working-class, and Gen X. Raised by a single mom in Rome after her father took off for a brand new life within the Canary Islands when she was a toddler, Giorgia Meloni got here of age in far-right youth actions. Now 46, she has been an expert politician since she was an adolescent.

Her victory in September’s nationwide elections unsettled the political institution elsewhere within the European Union, of which Italy is a founding member, and all through the democratic world. That her Brothers of Italy celebration has roots in postwar incarnations of the fascist motion, and that her supporters embody some modern-day admirers of the dictator Benito Mussolini, would till not too long ago have been sufficient to forestall somebody like Meloni from main a Western European authorities. Extra so than any current Italian prime minister—together with the center-right populist Silvio Berlusconi—she has constructed her politics round stark appeals to conventional nationwide id.

At a rally three years in the past in Rome, Meloni delivered what has develop into her most well-known speech. “I’m Giorgia. I’m a girl. I’m a mom. I’m Italian. I’m Christian,” she proclaimed to the group from a lectern draped with an Italian flag. “They’ve to remove every thing we’re,” she continued, with out fairly defining they, “as a result of after we not have an id, after we not have roots, we received’t have a conscience anymore, and we received’t be able to defending our rights.” She went on to declare, “They need us to be guardian one and guardian two”— as a substitute, presumably, of mom and father. (In actuality, Italy—like Hungary and Poland however not France or Germany—nonetheless usually prohibits same-sex {couples} from adopting youngsters.) An Italian DJ set Meloni’s speech to a peppy dance beat, fairly presumably as a joke, nevertheless it turned a well-liked rallying cry; the video has greater than 13 million views on YouTube.

two Meloni stand with closed flags in their hands looking serious
Supporters of Meloni’s political celebration, Brothers of Italy, rally in Cagliari in September.

In step with her neo-nationalist counterparts in america and all over the world, Meloni has a conspiratorial bent. Her normal targets could be acquainted to viewers of Fox Information: Earlier than taking workplace, she commonly singled out the European Union, multinational firms, and “the banks.” She has decried globalization, despite the fact that Italy’s financial system depends upon exports; she rails towards political correctness and cancel tradition, despite the fact that each are in brief provide in Italy. Her authorities has tried to impede humanitarian ships’ capacity to dock on the closest Italian ports after rescuing migrants within the Mediterranean and sought to manage teams that function such vessels.

Meloni can’t steer Italy in dramatic new instructions, as a result of she is sure by the confines of the euro, EU funds rules, and Italy’s membership in NATO, all of which she has pledged to uphold. She could not be capable of supply Italy a vivid future—an outlier in Europe, it has struggled to develop for many years—however she will be able to reposition the Italian proper as a political counterweight to technocrats in Brussels and as a drive for remaking Italian society. And she will be able to supply a tradition battle primarily based on triggering key phrases: Borders. Household. Roots. Identification. Immigration. Us. Them.

Meloni is a skillful politician who channels anger with out coming off as unhinged—a expertise that helped her break the glass ceiling in one among Europe’s most misogynistic cultures. As she writes in Io Sono Giorgia (“I Am Giorgia”), her 2021 autobiography, she’s a self-starter from Rome’s equal of the outer boroughs who struggles continuously along with her weight, attributes her mood to being a Capricorn, and retains a really tidy home—she organizes the knives in her cutlery drawer in good sequence, alternating blades and handles.

Her spirituality is extra sentimental than traditionalist Catholic. She collects statuettes of angels. Although she is a staunch defender of the standard household, she’s not married to her 6-year-old daughter’s father, a tv journalist, and didn’t transfer in with him till giving start. Having youngsters outdoors of marriage carries virtually no stigma in Italy, though Meloni raised some eyebrows when, after the current funeral of Pope Benedict XVI, she introduced her companion and her daughter to fulfill Pope Francis. Then once more, Italians have been rolling their eyes at political hypocrisy for millennia—there’s historic graffiti on the partitions of Pompeii to show it.

When she was pregnant, Meloni thought of a bid for mayor of Rome. In her autobiography, she recollects her anger at fellow right-wing politicians who discouraged her as a result of they feared the mom of an toddler wouldn’t be as much as the job. She additionally describes her guilt about working such lengthy hours with a small youngster. Her candor is a part of her attraction. Within the ebook, she jokes about her hairdresser, who as soon as made her a bit too blond and known as her “chubby Barbie.” She’s not afraid to make enjoyable of herself. On Fb simply earlier than the elections, Meloni posted an image of herself smiling subsequent to a defaced marketing campaign poster on which somebody had blacked out a number of of her tooth, with the caption “At all times reply with a smile! (Or no less than so long as it lasts.)”

Meloni taking a selfie with fans
Supporters encompass Meloni throughout her 2016 marketing campaign for mayor of Rome.

Meloni’s mixture of ferocity and relatability helped Brothers of Italy place first within the elections in September with 26 % of the vote, up from 4 % in 2018. Meloni positioned herself because the voice of a center class that feels left behind by elites. Brothers of Italy received amongst public-school lecturers—as soon as a stable center-left bloc in Italy—in addition to amongst public-sector staff, manufacturing facility employees, and shopkeepers. In distinction, the center-left Democratic Get together prevailed amongst college graduates. It positioned second within the elections and is now within the throes of its umpteenth id and management disaster. Pietrangelo Buttafuoco, a author and pal of Meloni’s, describes the end result because the victory of Coccia di Morto over Capalbio, Italy’s equal of the triumph of the Jersey Shore over the Hamptons.

In an indication of discontent, September’s elections had the lowest turnout in fashionable Italian historical past. However due to Italy’s complicated electoral legislation, which frequently produces fragile coalitions, Meloni didn’t want a majority of the citizens to manage a majority of Parliament. To date, her authorities appears adrift and defensive. Simply previous her first 100 days in workplace, she has struggled to show her small circle of loyalists right into a first-rate administration and has been caught unprepared by rising public anger over rising gasoline costs. At first, she blamed the hikes on market hypothesis, however her personal authorities had eliminated a tax break on gasoline. She has principally pushed symbolic points, equivalent to when she urged Italian diplomats to “defend the depth of our tradition” through the use of fewer English and French phrases.

Like many others on right now’s European and American proper, and in contrast to extra reasonable conservatives, Meloni attracts inspiration from the French thinker Renaud Camus’s “Nice Alternative” principle, which posits that nonwhite and non-Christian immigrants will ultimately supersede white Europeans. Earlier than coming to energy, she spoke and tweeted a couple of “deliberate and deliberate” technique of “ethnic substitution.” She additionally accused the financier and philanthropist George Soros of enabling mass immigration to Europe.

For many years after World Battle II, the uncooked legacy of the Holocaust solid disrepute on events fixated on upholding their nation’s ethnic order. However to at the present time, Mussolini is just not as poisonous in Italy as Adolf Hitler is in Germany, partly as a result of many Italians noticed Naziism’s evils as a strictly German enterprise. Problems with historic reminiscence barely registered in final fall’s election marketing campaign. Over time, Meloni has largely shied away from questions on her celebration’s political heritage, saying she was born lengthy after World Battle II and has nothing to apologize for. Nonetheless, she has refused to take away a flame representing the spirit of fascism from the Brothers of Italy image. It was solely after she turned prime minister that she condemned Mussolini’s dictatorship extra strongly than ever earlier than, declaring in her first speech to the decrease home that his 1938 racial legal guidelines, which banned Jews from public life, have been “the bottom level in Italian historical past, a disgrace that can perpetually mark our individuals.”

The mainstreaming of Italy’s far proper was already properly underneath approach in 2011, after I first noticed Meloni communicate. She was 34, a youth minister in Berlusconi’s center-right authorities—the youngest cupboard member in Italian historical past—and one of many solely girls within the cupboard who hadn’t beforehand been a showgirl on the real-estate-and-media mogul’s TV channels. At a convention of younger Italian industrialists in bespoke fits, heirs to the small household companies which might be the spine of the Italian financial system, Meloni, already a rising star of the Nationwide Alliance celebration when it merged with Berlusconi’s Forza Italia celebration two years earlier, debated Matteo Renzi, then the center-left mayor of Florence and later the nation’s prime minister. Each have been fast on their toes, expert, snappy. There was an power within the room. It was like watching an excellent tennis match.

Meloni’s presence there underscored Berlusconi’s position in giving mainstream respectability to conservatives like her. Within the 1994 election, his vaguely populist, market-friendly Forza Italia had led a center-right coalition that additionally included the Northern League, then a small celebration devoted to fiscal federalism—that’s, to letting the affluent areas of Lombardy and Veneto hold their tax income moderately than sharing it with Italy’s extra economically retrograde south. (This celebration, led by Matteo Salvini, is now recognized merely because the League.) Fatefully, Berlusconi’s coalition additionally included the Nationwide Alliance, which had emerged that very same 12 months from a merger of older far-right events, together with the neofascist Italian Social Motion.

Meloni in profile in BW
Berlusconi in parlement
Former Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi in 2013

Through the Berlusconi years, Italy’s financial progress lagged behind that of its European counterparts. In 2011, a debt disaster raised fears that Italy may default on its obligations and produce the remainder of the eurozone down with it. On the peak of that disaster, Berlusconi, who for years had been mired in intercourse scandals, stepped down underneath strain. He was changed by Mario Monti, an EU-blessed technocrat whose authorities imposed austerity measures, together with elevating the retirement age. Financial institution credit score dried up. Italians turned poorer.

The next 12 months, Meloni cut up with Berlusconi and based Brothers of Italy. Named after the opening line of Italy’s nationwide anthem, it was, from the outset, extra sharply ideological than Forza Italia or the League. Giovanbattista Fazzolari, Meloni’s concepts man, longtime shut adviser, and now a cupboard undersecretary, instructed me Brothers of Italy was an try “to answer a fantastic Italian anomaly, which is the absence of a celebration that places the nationwide curiosity entrance and heart.” Meloni’s celebration was a minor participant within the 2013 nationwide elections, which yielded no clear governing majority, and within the 2018 elections, which produced an odd coalition of the League and the anti-establishment 5 Star Motion.

Then, by way of numerous complicated maneuvering throughout the coronavirus pandemic, the middle left wound up as a part of technocratic coalition governments with out really having received elections. Meloni’s rapid predecessor, Mario Draghi, a extensively revered former European Central Financial institution president, led a national-unity authorities that was widespread with voters however fell aside anyway. When that occurred, in July, Meloni was opposition chief and ready to learn.

Within the ensuing election, Meloni’s celebration ran alongside the League and Forza Italia. When she positioned first, she turned the chief of that conservative coalition. Meloni now governs a wealthy nation that’s at finest stagnating, a rustic of haves who increasingly more really feel like have-nots. She is the younger face of an growing older nation with the highest pension spending within the industrialized world, a rustic that sees its shoreline as a threat—a spot from which invaders in boats arrive from afar, this time within the type of migrants from Africa and Asia searching for a greater life in Europe. Meloni and different neo-nationalists are wanting to debate who has a proper to achieve entry, and who belongs within the polity.

As an alternative of attending college, Meloni started working as a political operative straight out of highschool. She tends to not focus on politics in philosophical phrases. However prior to now few years, her advisers have been constructing an mental basis for her politics considerably after the very fact. In her first speech to the decrease home, Meloni approvingly famous the British conservative political thinker Roger Scruton’s help for environmental safety. Scruton, whom she additionally cites in Io Sono Giorgia, is finest recognized for his protection of the nation-state and of sharply outlined nationwide id. The “actual worth of neighborhood,” he as soon as argued, is “sanctity, intolerance, exclusion, and a way that life’s that means relies upon upon obedience, and likewise on vigilance towards the enemy.”

Meloni’s frequent inveighing towards unlawful immigration, with unstated racial undertones, is an important a part of her platform and electoral success. Quickly after taking workplace, she set off a diplomatic disaster with France when Italy refused harbor to an NGO boat that had rescued migrants from drowning within the Mediterranean, forcing it to dock in France. Tousled in its personal immigration controversies, France was reluctant to permit the boat to land. Meloni scored factors along with her base—We caught it to snobby France! Allow them to see what it’s wish to take care of these boats!—at the price of damaging Italy’s relationship with a key ally.

Since coming to energy, Meloni has taken pains to painting herself as reliable and regular, even boring. By means of her aides, she declined a number of interview requests, however in one among her solely one-on-one interviews since taking workplace, she instructed the editor in chief of Corriere Della Sera that she led a “a contemporary right-wing and conservative authorities like many others within the West.” This can be true, however not as a result of Meloni’s positions moderated. Conservative politicians and voters throughout the West have taken a stark nativist flip. The road between the correct and the far proper has been eroding.

After the elections final fall, I spent a while in and round Modena, a chic metropolis of porticoes and excessive incomes in part of Northern Italy’s Emilia-Romagna area recognized for its balsamic vinegar and progressive politics. In September’s elections, the district of Modena voted for the correct for the primary time since World Battle II. That was partly the end result of a redistricting that merged the extra liberal metropolis with its extra conservative hinterland. However as I drove round to smaller cities that was strongly Communist, I sensed a deep fatigue on the a part of center-left voters. The Democratic Get together, individuals stored telling me, had develop into the celebration of the elites. Roberto Solomita, the Democratic Get together mayor of Soliera, a city outdoors Modena, instructed me that the discontent went past politics. “Individuals who really feel threatened by the modifications on the earth don’t ask the left for solutions, and we aren’t capable of shield them,” he stated.

Meloni’s us-versus-them strategy performs on a sense of insecurity that appears pervasive in lots of small Italian cities. In Sassuolo, a metropolis of 40,000 outdoors Modena, I wandered right into a newsstand whereas a person, apparently in psychological misery, was screaming within the piazza outdoors. The store proprietor, 52-year-old Katia Ferrari, pointed to that as an indication that the neighborhood wasn’t what it was. She instructed me she had voted for Brothers of Italy for the primary time in September, out of curiosity. “Let’s give it a attempt,” she stated. “I’m extra for severity. We don’t want buonismo,” she added, utilizing a time period for being too good that’s typically related to the Italian left. Ferrari instructed me she’d voted for the 5 Star Motion in 2018 however had soured on its hallmark laws: the “residents’ revenue,” a month-to-month subsidy for unemployed individuals. She preferred Meloni’s pledge to eradicate it. Why ought to some individuals get public funds to not work when she needed to work? Ferrari requested me.

Diptych: Left- a young man in a barber shop. Right: people walking on a wide street surrounded by buildings.
Left: Okubor Prince, a Nigerian immigrant who not too long ago opened a barbershop, in Sassuolo in October. Proper: Residents stroll by a sq. in Nonantola.

In a close-by bar, the proprietor, Monica Consiglio, instructed me she, too, had voted for Meloni to protest the residents’ revenue. “We had hassle discovering workers,” she stated. On the counter, a buyer was talking Arabic into his cellphone. Italy has an growing older workforce and desires migrant labor to perform, however Meloni’s rise could make the labor scarcity worse. Italian enterprise associations have been asking her to extend the variety of immigrants allowed into the nation to work. In a close-by barbershop, a person from Nigeria and a person from Ghana instructed me they have been involved that life wouldn’t be straightforward for Black individuals in Italy underneath Meloni. “We’re apprehensive, however there’s not a lot we will do,” Evans Amartey instructed me. He’s 22 and got here to Italy from Ghana to play soccer semiprofessionally and be part of his factory-worker father, however he didn’t see a future for himself within the nation.

Meloni tends to speak about her personal positions on contested points as in the event that they have been inarguable frequent sense. Why ought to we tolerate unlawful immigration? Why ought to we let homosexual individuals undertake youngsters? Why ought to individuals be paid to not work? But regardless of a few of her harsher rhetoric, Meloni’s celebration, like a lot of the European proper and much proper, is to the left of U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders in its help for a welfare state. Meloni speaks typically of how Italy has one of many lowest start charges within the West and one among Europe’s lowest female-employment charges. It lags far behind France and its different European counterparts in state help for households. She desires to implement higher state youngster care so girls can have children and return to work, boosting the financial system. Meloni—who opposes abortion however says she received’t contact Italy’s broadly widespread 1975 legislation legalizing the process—has proposed to supply funds for girls who may in any other case finish their being pregnant for financial causes. (This problem is private for her. Her mom was in her early 20s and in a rocky marriage when she acquired pregnant with Meloni and thought of an abortion.)

In Italy, as in lots of European international locations, left- and right-wing events alike rhapsodize concerning the stability and social protections that previous generations loved. However when Meloni and others shift the controversy to find out how to outline and implement nationwide id, the left struggles—and infrequently refuses—to compete.

“I thank the conservative household for his or her belief,” Meloni declared on Twitter in 2020 after being elected president of the European Conservatives and Reformists, a bloc of hard-line events within the European Parliament that resist immigration and oppose additional political integration inside the EU. “Allow us to proceed to battle collectively,” she added, “for a accomplice Europe of free and sovereign states.” Members of the group embody Poland’s ruling Regulation and Justice celebration; Spain’s far-right Vox celebration, whose rallies Meloni has typically addressed; and Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán’s ethnonationalist Fidesz. I heard Meloni and Orbán communicate in protection of Christian nationwide id at a convention of neo-nationalists in Rome in early 2020. The organizers included Francesco Giubilei, an in depth Meloni adviser, and Yoram Hazony, the Israeli creator of The Advantage of Nationalism, a key hyperlink on this worldwide fellowship.

Lately, many conservatives throughout Europe have expressed affinity for Russian President Vladimir Putin, a strongman whose ethnic chauvinism and assaults on LGBTQ individuals encourage admiration on the far proper. In her autobiography, Meloni writes, “Russia is a part of our system of European values; it defends Christian id and fights Islamic fundamentalism.” But after Putin invaded Ukraine, Meloni rapidly pivoted to make help for Kyiv a pillar of her celebration’s platform, going towards her personal base to take action. Italy’s financial ties to Russia are much more restricted than Germany’s, but additionally extra opaque, and Italians blame the battle for rising utility costs. Due to her nation’s treaty commitments, a big a part of the prime minister’s job is to verify Italy, which has seven NATO bases, doesn’t veer too near Russia. Doing this implies maintaining in line Berlusconi, who has a longtime private friendship with Putin, and Matteo Salvini, whose League celebration has been underneath investigation for its Russia ties.

Like another neo-nationalists, Meloni has drawn inspiration from a extra idiosyncratic supply: fantasy fiction. Within the ’90s, she co-founded the Atreju competition, an annual far-right rally named after the protagonist of The Neverending Story, Michael Ende’s 1979 ebook a couple of warrior boy who fights towards a darkish drive known as The Nothing. Visitors on the competition have included the previous Trump aide Steve Bannon and Orbán, whom Meloni admires and whom her advisers admire extra. Meloni has additionally adopted J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings in a quest to seek out new heroes for a conservative cultural id. Tolkien and Ende “may appear superficial,” Meloni’s author pal Buttafuoco instructed me, “however the truth is they’ve a profound symbolic that means in that they characterize a break from the twentieth century”—that’s, from the discredited tropes of fascism.

But the dominant spirit of Meloni’s politics is a way of unmitigated grievance. In her speech to the decrease home, Meloni described herself as an “underdog,” utilizing the English phrase to check with her battle for the highest spot from a cultural custom that, as she put it, “was typically relegated to the margins of the historical past of the republic.” Meloni routinely depicts herself as a sufferer of the snobbery of the left-wing elites, despite the fact that the middle proper has ruled in Italy for a lot of the previous three many years. (It’s harking back to how the Catholic Church, which dominated Europe politically and culturally for the higher a part of 2,000 years, right now depicts itself as a sufferer of the secularizing forces of the EU.)

In my conversations with Meloni’s advisers, I used to be struck not solely by the content material however the tone—a sense of getting been slighted, of getting been disregarded; an virtually paranoid sense of persecution. This emotional conception of conservatism as not only a set of coverage concepts however as payback to entitled elites transcends nationwide boundaries. Meloni’s speech final 12 months on the Conservative Political Motion Convention in Orlando, Florida, confirmed this intense defensive stance. “We stay in a time by which every thing we stand for is underneath assault,” she stated. “Our particular person freedom is underneath assault, our rights are underneath assault, the sovereignty of our nation is underneath assault, the prosperity and well-being of our households are underneath assault.” She added, “The one approach of being rebels is to protect what we’re. The one approach of being rebels is to be conservative.”

Today, Meloni has her fingers full managing her two junior coalition companions. Berlusconi and Salvini each crave the highlight and envy Meloni whereas additionally counting on her to remain in energy. Salvini is an excitable wild card who loves posting selfies and introduced down Italy’s final two governments. When he was inside minister, he oversaw the police and ran a high-profile social-media marketing campaign towards immigrants. Meloni, who drew many votes away from Salvini within the elections, tried to defang him by appointing him deputy prime minister and infrastructure minister—a much less flashy position regardless of the billions of euros in public funding that his company disperses.

Silvini taking a selfie with a very large crowd
Matteo Salvini, chief of the League political celebration and now the deputy prime minister, takes a selfie along with his supporters in 2019.
Berlusconi in a black car
Berlusconi waves to his supporters.

In the meantime Berlusconi, now 86 and again within the Senate after serving a sentence for tax fraud, has not taken kindly to answering to his onetime underling. He was caught on digicam within the Senate chamber final fall with a paper on his desk itemizing dismissive phrases for Meloni, together with “patronizing” and “bossy.” When an Italian TV reporter requested her to touch upon that, she snapped again, “An adjective is lacking: that I’m not blackmailable,” implying that her scandal-plagued former political benefactor was.

Meloni continues to be discovering her footing in authorities. She lacks a classe dirigente, high-level bureaucrats skilled in governance and diplomacy. Italy’s institution, expert in survival, is already making its lodging to the brand new order. In Rome, I spoke with Francesco Verderami, a outstanding columnist at Corriere Della Sera. “That is essentially the most troublesome second within the postwar interval,” he instructed me. Of all of the events on the scene for the time being, Meloni’s, in his view, is best-positioned to steer and maintain the nation collectively. The scenario “must be managed by a right-wing authorities. It’s the top of a taboo,” he instructed me. “Italy doesn’t solely threat an financial disaster, however our complete productive system is in danger. There’s inflation, battle, an power disaster. There’s a very sturdy threat of social fracture.”

And but Meloni has been heightening divisions moderately than soothing them. She named as speaker of the decrease home Lorenzo Fontana, an archconservative loose-cannon lawmaker from the League, maybe finest recognized for co-hosting an anti-abortion and anti-gay-marriage gathering in Verona. She appointed as president of the Senate a former protection minister whose center title is Benito and who, by the way, retains a sculpture of Mussolini in his house. For her tradition minister she picked Gennaro Sangiugliano, the creator of a hagiographic biography of Putin and a former television-news govt with a historical past of stoking fears of unlawful immigration. His signature initiative up to now has been to boost ticket costs at Florence’s Uffizi Gallery on the grounds that Individuals can afford to pay extra.

Meloni caught in a camera light with people surrounding her
Meloni after a September rally in Cagliari

Meloni typically jogs my memory of a right-wing model of Alexis Tsipras, the leftist chief of Greece’s Syriza celebration, who turned out to be a stronger opposition chief than head of presidency. For all of the speak of a brand new conservative motion, a lot of Meloni’s program is prosaic, extra defensive than expansive. She raised the ceiling on the dimensions of money funds, a transfer that appeared to acknowledge the realities of Italian tax evasion. She proposed harsh jail phrases for individuals who manage unlawful raves, which critics have known as an overreach that would have an effect on the correct to meeting. She has adamantly pursued defamation fits towards journalists. “The true threat is that this: intolerant democracy,” Valentina Desalvo, an editor on the center-left every day La Repubblica, instructed me. “You suppose you’re a majority, so minorities don’t exist—to progressively eradicate dissent and to construct consensus not by way of issues that convey concerning the progress of society however by shrinking the general public area for adversaries. Which is what Trump did. That is Meloni’s actual mannequin.”

Meloni’s management may show sturdy if no different majority emerges and if she matures in workplace. In a speech at a foreign-policy convention in Rome in December, she stated Italy wanted “extra Europe”—that means extra help from the EU—to share the burden of contending with the migrants trying to succeed in Italian shores. It was a transparent request for assist. There was no speak of how the EU disadvantaged Italians of their id. Meloni’s tradition battle could appease the aggrieved, nevertheless it’s not a plan of motion.

In the long run, the best impediment Meloni could but face is management itself—the quicksand of her native Rome, town of paperwork, an historic capital whose dominant power is inertia. Ever because the lengthy period of Berlusconi resulted in 2011, nothing has depleted an Italian chief’s political capital quicker than coming to energy.


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